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Xuechong Hong and Wenduo Gu

remodeling based on recent literatures. Overview of vascular remodeling of large vessels Large vessels are essentially composed of three layers: tunica intima, tunica media and tunica adventitia. The intimal layer mainly contains endothelial cells

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Ruth Ganss

normalising effects to maximize the therapeutic window in combination therapies. Table 1 Selected vascular remodelling therapies with synergistic or alternative outcomes to VEGF/VEGFR targeting. Compound Specificity Target/outcome Tumour

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T Scott Bowen and Stuart Egginton

including the role of endothelial cell metabolism ( 2 ). Hypoxia is thought to be a key driver for vascular remodelling, with observations of oxygen sensing at the capillary level ( 5 ) providing a plausible HIF1α-VEGF route linking supply and demand

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Ebba Brakenhielm and Vincent Richard

therapeutically induce blood vessel growth and remodeling also under these challenges ( 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 ). However, the functional gain to the ischemic territory may remain unsatisfactory despite increased vascularity, notably in human patients

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Jaana Schneider, Marianne Pultar and Wolfgang Holnthoner

the lens in the eye, most of the organs in the human body rely on a functional supply with vascular structures to provide the cells with oxygen and nutrients on the one side (blood vessels) and to drain interstitial fluid back into the venous

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Linda Alex and Nikolaos G Frangogiannis

-0273 ) 6 Wang S Cao C Chen Z Bankaitis V Tzima E Sheibani N Burridge K . Pericytes regulate vascular basement membrane remodeling and govern neutrophil extravasation during inflammation . PLoS ONE 2012 7 e45499 . (

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Piotr Kobialka and Mariona Graupera

Hampered vessel growth and increased vessel regression in the retina (20) FOXO Foxo1−/− Global Embryonic lethality (E11), highly impaired cardiovascular and yolk sac development and abnormal vascular remodelling (27, 28) Tie2-Cre

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Stephen P Gray, Ajay M Shah and Ioannis Smyrnias

vascular remodeling . Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2016 36 295 – 307 . ( ) 36 Mollnau H Wendt M Szöcs K Lassègue B Schulz E Oelze M Li H Bodenschatz M August M

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James T Pearson, Mikiyasu Shirai, Vijayakumar Sukumaran, Cheng-Kun Du, Hirotsugu Tsuchimochi, Takashi Sonobe, Mark T Waddingham, Rajesh Katare and Daryl O Schwenke

vascular remodeling. Furthermore, AG treatment was found to restore NO bioavailability and endothelial function in small arteries isolated from biopsies taken from essential hypertension patients, in part by inhibition of superoxide generation ( 32 ). In

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Eleonora Zucchelli, Qasim A Majid and Gabor Foldes

, thus remodelling of the primitive vascular plexus during and after development ( 5 ). It occurs by two distinct mechanisms, namely endothelial sprouting and intussusceptive microvascular growth. Endothelial sprouting is based on EC migration into the