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Makeda Stephenson, Daniel H Reich, and Kenneth R Boheler

Introduction Vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) develop from cell lineage precursors and progenitors to form a layer of non-striated contractile mural cells located between the tunica media and tunica adventitia of blood vessels which

Open access

Ornella Colpani and Gaia Spinetti

vascular system that dramatically increase during aging. Senescence of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells Several observations indicate that aging and senescence are processes which contribute to the onset of cardiovascular diseases, and

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Raafat Mohamed, Reearna Janke, Wanru Guo, Yingnan Cao, Ying Zhou, Wenhua Zheng, Hossein Babaahmadi-Rezaei, Suowen Xu, Danielle Kamato, and Peter J Little

serine/threonine kinase receptors (S/TKR) notably transforming growth factor (TGF)-β type 1 receptor (TGFBR1). In human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), treatment with thrombin ( 12 , 13 ) or endothelin-1 (ET-1) ( 14 , 15 ) stimulates carboxy

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Sashini Iddawela, Andrew Ravendren, and Amer Harky

syndrome Defects in elastin and collagen lead to maladaptive responses to increased wall stress Marfan’s syndrome, vascular Ehler’s Danlos syndrome, Loey–Dietz syndrome, multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome, Turner syndrome

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Amer Harky, Ka Siu Fan, and Ka Hay Fan

development through alteration of collagen and elastin metabolism. Another relatively rare condition, multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome, is a defect in ACTA2 that manifests as decreased contractility of smooth muscle cells (SMC) ( 27 , 28

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Aurélie Hautefort, Anna Pfenniger, and Brenda R Kwak

the plasma membrane and intercellular channels called gap junctions (GJs) connecting the cytoplasms of two neighboring cells ( Fig. 1 ). Cxs are expressed in virtually all tissues and cell types ( 1 , 2 ), including endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth

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Dwitiya Sawant and Brenda Lilly

apparent in 2009, when a group of high-profile papers collectively demonstrated its tissue-specific expression during mouse development and its regulatory role in vascular smooth muscle cells ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). miR-143 and miR-145 are co

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Xuechong Hong and Wenduo Gu

. The medial layer consists mostly of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and a small number of MSCs. The adventitial layer hosts a heterogenous population of cells including fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, microvascular cells and a variety of MSCs ( 8

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Malik Bisserier, Radoslav Janostiak, Frank Lezoualc’h, and Lahouaria Hadri

such as pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Vascular remodeling occurs as a result of pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, PASMC proliferation and migration, medial hypertrophy, inflammation

Open access

Linda Alex and Nikolaos G Frangogiannis

, are coated by vascular smooth muscle cells. Pericytes are ubiquitously found in all organs and contribute to vascular maturation and stability, by regulating capillary permeability and by restraining endothelial cell proliferation. In addition to their