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Makeda Stephenson, Daniel H Reich and Kenneth R Boheler

-directed, but specific cell types can be induced depending on the addition of growth factors at specific times of cultivation ( 16 , 17 , 18 ). (B) Phenotype-driven protocols seek to generate either synthetic or contractile vSMCs through phenotype switching

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Ornella Colpani and Gaia Spinetti

) collectively named senescent-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). SASP-associated propagation of senescence to other cells and organs, the so-called ‘bystander effect’, amplifies the detrimental effect in aging and diseases of the low abundant population of

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Carlo Dal Lin, Francesco Tona and Elena Osto

switch the endothelial phenotype from health to disease-causing endothelial dysfunction ( 5 ). Indeed, the dysfunction of endothelial cells (ECs) represents the earliest key step in the development of most cardiovascular diseases. However, the molecular

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Amer Harky, Ka Siu Fan and Ka Hay Fan

SB Zhu J Zhou ZZ Xi EP Wang RP Zhang Y . TGF-β1 induces human aortic vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype switch through PI3K/AKT/ID2 signaling . American Journal of Translational Research 2015 2764 – 2774 . 87 Takeda N Hara H

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Xuechong Hong and Wenduo Gu

subset of Sca1+ SMC within the media underwent active phenotypic transitions in response to carotid ligation injury ( 21 ). Taken together, the dynamic switching between different MSC populations and SMCs requires further clarifications to demonstrate a

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Malik Bisserier, Radoslav Janostiak, Frank Lezoualc’h and Lahouaria Hadri

of phenotype switch-related marker alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) ( 183 ) in PASMCs. Finally, it is now well-known that altered PDGF signaling contributes to the PAH pathogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism remains not fully understood

Open access

Stephen P Gray, Ajay M Shah and Ioannis Smyrnias

suppression of prolyl hydroxylase 4 (PHD4) ( 18 ). Moreover, in the pressure-overloaded heart, hypertrophic remodeling includes a switch in the preferred energy substrate from fatty acids to glucose. The upregulation of NOX4 levels in the overloaded heart