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Makeda Stephenson, Daniel H Reich and Kenneth R Boheler

environment currently limit research progress. Human (h)-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived vSMCs represent an alternative system for human vascular studies ( 8 ). Human iPSCs, generated from patient-derived somatic cells, are able to differentiate

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Jaana Schneider, Marianne Pultar and Wolfgang Holnthoner

endothelial cells (OECs)), induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived ECs will be able to account for organotypic vascular beds ( 21 ). Another possibility is the direct reprogramming of differentiated human cells, such as fibroblast ( 22 , 23 ) or mature

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Ornella Colpani and Gaia Spinetti

) show the formation of a necrotic core within the plaques in the absence of SASP. Interestingly, reduced expression of TRF2 has been associated with senescent VSMCs in human atherosclerotic lesions ( 14 ). MicroRNAs are master regulators of

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Tomasz Jadczyk, Guido Caluori, Wojciech Wojakowski and Zdenek Starek

therapeutic applications. MCSs are present in multiple organs ( 29 ) throughout human body including adipose tissue (adipose-derived stromal/stem cells, ASCs) and umbilical cord, which provides an easily accessible and expandable source of cells for clinical

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Eleonora Zucchelli, Qasim A Majid and Gabor Foldes

angiogenesis. Moreover, the zebrafish genome has been sequenced showing a high level of conservation with human coding protein sequences ( 23 ). Additionally, this allows for the easy generation of various transgenic lines for the expression of reporter