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Ornella Colpani and Gaia Spinetti

vascular system that dramatically increase during aging. Senescence of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells Several observations indicate that aging and senescence are processes which contribute to the onset of cardiovascular diseases, and

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Carlo Dal Lin, Francesco Tona and Elena Osto

switch the endothelial phenotype from health to disease-causing endothelial dysfunction ( 5 ). Indeed, the dysfunction of endothelial cells (ECs) represents the earliest key step in the development of most cardiovascular diseases. However, the molecular

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Tomasz Jadczyk, Guido Caluori, Wojciech Wojakowski and Zdenek Starek

therapies. Stem cells Vascular homeostasis depends on endothelium integrity and complex interaction between endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells, and extracellular matrix ( 27 ). Additionally, vascular stem and progenitor cells have

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Jaana Schneider, Marianne Pultar and Wolfgang Holnthoner

( 5 ). Figure 1 Overview of different vascularization strategies. Functional blood and lymphatic microvasculature can be achieved by co-culturing of endothelial and supporting cells from different origins. Natural or synthetic scaffolds are

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Aurélie Hautefort, Anna Pfenniger and Brenda R Kwak

the plasma membrane and intercellular channels called gap junctions (GJs) connecting the cytoplasms of two neighboring cells ( Fig. 1 ). Cxs are expressed in virtually all tissues and cell types ( 1 , 2 ), including endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth

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James T Pearson, Mikiyasu Shirai, Vijayakumar Sukumaran, Cheng-Kun Du, Hirotsugu Tsuchimochi, Takashi Sonobe, Mark T Waddingham, Rajesh Katare and Daryl O Schwenke

both the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system and is particularly important for the protection of endothelial cell function ( 3 ). The gut is the largest producer of this peptide, but the heart and vasculature also express ghrelin at

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Piotr Kobialka and Mariona Graupera

existing ones ( 1 , 2 ). Upon exposure to proangiogenic stimuli, endothelial cells, which line up the inner part of the vascular tubes, undergo dynamic and complex morpho-biochemical changes that allow them to invade and expand in avascularised tissues

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Timothy D Le Cras and Elisa Boscolo

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is a critical regulator of the angiogenic process by controlling endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration and survival ( 1 ). Growth factor

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Tatiane Gorski and Katrien De Bock

ingenious network of blood vessels formed by neatly aligned endothelial cells (ECs). During exercise, the uptake of oxygen and nutrients needs to increase dramatically ( 3 , 4 ), and for this reason, blood flow through the vessels surrounding the active

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Amer Harky, Ka Siu Fan and Ka Hay Fan

oxidative stress, damaging repair mechanisms present in certain cells lineages where telomerase restores the tandem repeat sequences. Preclinical studies have identified age-related endothelial cell (EC) and SMC dysfunction that contributes to the vascular