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Makeda Stephenson, Daniel H Reich and Kenneth R Boheler

environment currently limit research progress. Human (h)-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived vSMCs represent an alternative system for human vascular studies ( 8 ). Human iPSCs, generated from patient-derived somatic cells, are able to differentiate

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Xuechong Hong and Wenduo Gu

Introduction Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) generally refer to a heterogeneous population of fibroblast-like cells with the self-renewal ability and the capacity to differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineages including smooth

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Eleonora Zucchelli, Qasim A Majid and Gabor Foldes

the primitive vascular plexus and the heart during embryonic development, via the differentiation of endothelial cell precursors (hemangioblasts) into endothelial cells ( 4 ). Angiogenesis refers to the formation of new vessels from pre-existing ones

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Tomasz Jadczyk, Guido Caluori, Wojciech Wojakowski and Zdenek Starek

use ( 30 , 31 ). Furthermore, MSCs possess particular characteristics: (i) strong angiogenic and paracrine potential, (ii) ability to differentiate to vascular cells contributing to angio- and arteriogenesis ( 32 ), (iii) favorable immunogenic profile

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Eleonora Foglio, Laura Pellegrini, Antonia Germani, Matteo Antonio Russo and Federica Limana

, proliferation, differentiation, migration, invasion and tissue regeneration ( 2 ). The ability to translocate from a cellular compartment to another is mainly due to its post-translational modifications, in particular to acetylation and phosphorylation ( 3

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Jaana Schneider, Marianne Pultar and Wolfgang Holnthoner

types of scaffolds have a high degree of biocompatibility and provide superior adhesion sites leading to improved growth and differentiation capability of the cells ( 17 ). Since both types of materials – natural and synthetic – can be fine-tuned with

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Ambra Cappelletto and Serena Zacchigna

developing novel and effective strategies to revascularize the ischemic heart. This has led to the identification of three main processes of vessel formation. In the embryo, mesoderm-derived angioblasts differentiate into endothelial cells to form the

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Linda Alex and Nikolaos G Frangogiannis

in normal adult mammalian hearts and suggested that these cells form an incomplete layer around the microvascular endothelium ( 17 , 18 ). Due to the lack of specific and reliable markers to identify pericytes, and to differentiate them from other

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Ruth Ganss

differentiation during physiological angiogenesis are also important for tumour vessel normalisation, for instance, angiopoietins (Ang) and their receptors, notch receptors and ligands, and integrins; the role of these molecules in vessel normalisation has been

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Carlo Dal Lin, Francesco Tona and Elena Osto

differentiation factor-15, activin-A, myostatin, adrenomedullin, and endocannabinoids) ( 1 ). It is becoming increasingly clear that a continuous flow of molecular information is exchanged between the cardiovascular and the immune system ( 9 ). However, how the