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Sashini Iddawela, Andrew Ravendren, and Amer Harky

to several influences, involving a complex interplay between mechanical forces exerted by biological structure in the healthy and diseased thoracic aorta. This literature review will explore evidence surrounding the genetic, biological and

Open access

Amer Harky, Ka Siu Fan, and Ka Hay Fan

divided into tunica intima, media and adventitia. Thoracic aortic aneurysms affect all three layers of the vessel and is applicable to any dilatation of over 1.5 times its normal size anywhere from the aortic root to the beginning of abdominal aorta ( 4

Open access

Gloria Garoffolo and Maurizio Pesce

dilatation of the aorta ( 52 , 53 ). Indeed, abnormal SMC mechanosensing has been implicated in thoracic aortic aneurysm progression (TAA) in a variety of genetically driven diseases ( 52 ); for example, Marfan syndrome, a heritable disorder of connective

Open access

Xuechong Hong and Wenduo Gu

health and diseased aortas, the study showed that CD90+ MSCs from diseased aorta exhibited altered gene expression signature related to the disease progression. CD44+ was applied to mark an MSC population isolated from human arterial adventitia that also

Open access

Chia-Pei Denise Hsu, Joshua D Hutcheson, and Sharan Ramaswamy

). A preceding event that leads to oscillatory blood flow patterns is that of substantial blood flow deceleration at these specific cardiovascular sites, thereby initiating flow reversal. Aortic heart valves, aorta, and coronary arteries Heart

Open access

Laura Monteonofrio, Maria Cristina Florio, Majd AlGhatrif, Edward G Lakatta, and Maurizio C Capogrossi

increase in the thoracic aorta of old mice ( 84 ). In agreement with these animal studies, normotensive humans older than 60 years have lower levels of plasma renin than younger adults ( 85 , 86 ). The local expression of angiotensinogen, the precursor

Open access

Makeda Stephenson, Daniel H Reich, and Kenneth R Boheler

smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) derive from the endoderm and mesoderm germ layers. NC-derived vSMCs give rise to ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the pulmonary trunk. Most distinct populations of vSMCs arise from the mesoderm. Coronary arteries are

Open access

Eleonora Zucchelli, Qasim A Majid, and Gabor Foldes

isolation of intimal and adventitial endothelial cells from the human thoracic aorta . PLoS ONE 2015 e0143144 . ( ) 30 Comhair SA Xu W Mavrakis L Aldred MA Asosingh K Erzurum SC . Human

Open access

James T Pearson, Mikiyasu Shirai, Vijayakumar Sukumaran, Cheng-Kun Du, Hirotsugu Tsuchimochi, Takashi Sonobe, Mark T Waddingham, Rajesh Katare, and Daryl O Schwenke

responses across the pulmonary arterial bed, reduced ET-1 protein expression and vessel rarefaction ( 19 ). Furthermore, chronic AG treatment restored the impairment of acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation in thoracic aortas in growth hormone-deficient rats

Open access

Catarina G Fonseca, Pedro Barbacena, and Claudio A Franco

achieved through differentiation of mesoderm-derived progenitors (angioblasts) into ECs, which aggregate and fuse to form blood islands and the primary capillary plexus ( 3 , 4 ). This process generates early major vessels, including dorsal aorta, cardinal