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Xuechong Hong and Wenduo Gu

remodeling based on recent literatures. Overview of vascular remodeling of large vessels Large vessels are essentially composed of three layers: tunica intima, tunica media and tunica adventitia. The intimal layer mainly contains endothelial cells

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Malik Bisserier, Radoslav Janostiak, Frank Lezoualc’h and Lahouaria Hadri

Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a vascular remodeling disease characterized by an increase of PVR and an elevation of PAP ≥25 mmHg at rest or 30 mmHg with exercise, leading to RV failure and ultimately death ( 1 , 2 , 3

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Ruth Ganss

normalising effects to maximize the therapeutic window in combination therapies. Table 1 Selected vascular remodelling therapies with synergistic or alternative outcomes to VEGF/VEGFR targeting. Compound Specificity Target/outcome Tumour

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T Scott Bowen and Stuart Egginton

including the role of endothelial cell metabolism ( 2 ). Hypoxia is thought to be a key driver for vascular remodelling, with observations of oxygen sensing at the capillary level ( 5 ) providing a plausible HIF1α-VEGF route linking supply and demand

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James T Pearson, Mikiyasu Shirai, Vijayakumar Sukumaran, Cheng-Kun Du, Hirotsugu Tsuchimochi, Takashi Sonobe, Mark T Waddingham, Rajesh Katare and Daryl O Schwenke

vascular remodeling. Furthermore, AG treatment was found to restore NO bioavailability and endothelial function in small arteries isolated from biopsies taken from essential hypertension patients, in part by inhibition of superoxide generation ( 32 ). In

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Tomasz Jadczyk, Guido Caluori, Wojciech Wojakowski and Zdenek Starek

tissues: technology trends and potential clinical applications . Clinical Science 2019 1115 – 1135 . ( https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20180155 ) 28 Wang D Li LK Dai T Wang A Li S . Adult stem cells in vascular remodeling . Theranostics

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Timothy D Le Cras and Elisa Boscolo

disrupted vascular remodeling in the embryonic and extraembryonic tissues and lethality prior to E11.5 ( 9 ). Conversely, ubiquitous expression of Pik3ca H1047R in 6–8-week-old mice caused increased body weight, organomegaly and metabolic defects ( 10

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Stephen P Gray, Ajay M Shah and Ioannis Smyrnias

vascular remodeling . Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2016 36 295 – 307 . ( https://doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.307012 ) 36 Mollnau H Wendt M Szöcs K Lassègue B Schulz E Oelze M Li H Bodenschatz M August M

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Amer Harky, Ka Siu Fan and Ka Hay Fan

vascular remodelling, causing the myriad of cardiovascular malfunctions in diseases such as MFS and LDS ( 77 , 84 , 85 ). Its effects manifest via activation of various signalling pathways, both SMAD dependent and independent. As a whole, TGFB regulates

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Piotr Kobialka and Mariona Graupera

Hampered vessel growth and increased vessel regression in the retina (20) FOXO Foxo1−/− Global Embryonic lethality (E11), highly impaired cardiovascular and yolk sac development and abnormal vascular remodelling (27, 28) Tie2-Cre