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Sashini Iddawela, Andrew Ravendren, and Amer Harky

to several influences, involving a complex interplay between mechanical forces exerted by biological structure in the healthy and diseased thoracic aorta. This literature review will explore evidence surrounding the genetic, biological and

Open access

Amer Harky, Ka Siu Fan, and Ka Hay Fan

). Even with optimised management, the thoracic aorta can continue to grow and will experience a sharp increase in risk of rupture, dissection and surgical mortality once it reaches 6 to 7 cm in diameter ( 8 ). Unlike other variants, type A aortic

Open access

James T Pearson, Mikiyasu Shirai, Vijayakumar Sukumaran, Cheng-Kun Du, Hirotsugu Tsuchimochi, Takashi Sonobe, Mark T Waddingham, Rajesh Katare, and Daryl O Schwenke

responses across the pulmonary arterial bed, reduced ET-1 protein expression and vessel rarefaction ( 19 ). Furthermore, chronic AG treatment restored the impairment of acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation in thoracic aortas in growth hormone-deficient rats

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Eleonora Zucchelli, Qasim A Majid, and Gabor Foldes

isolation of intimal and adventitial endothelial cells from the human thoracic aorta . PLoS ONE 2015 e0143144 . ( ) 30 Comhair SA Xu W Mavrakis L Aldred MA Asosingh K Erzurum SC . Human

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Laura Monteonofrio, Maria Cristina Florio, Majd AlGhatrif, Edward G Lakatta, and Maurizio C Capogrossi

increase in the thoracic aorta of old mice ( 84 ). In agreement with these animal studies, normotensive humans older than 60 years have lower levels of plasma renin than younger adults ( 85 , 86 ). The local expression of angiotensinogen, the precursor

Open access

Makeda Stephenson, Daniel H Reich, and Kenneth R Boheler

Cytokeratins, TBX18, WT1, CFC1, ZFPM2 Coronary arteries Paraxial Mesoderm PDGFRA, MEOX1, TBX6, PAX1, TCF15 Proximal descending and thoracic aorta Mesothelium WT1 Pleural Lung vasculature Kidney (Nephrogenic