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Sashini Iddawela, Andrew Ravendren, and Amer Harky

. ( ) 37 Yap CH Saikrishnan N Tamilselvan G Vasilyev N Yoganathan AP The congenital bicuspid aortic valve can experience high-frequency unsteady shear stresses on its leaflet surface . American Journal of

Open access

Chia-Pei Denise Hsu, Joshua D Hutcheson, and Sharan Ramaswamy

shear stress, while the fibrosa side experiences oscillatory shear stress. The fibrosa side which is dominated by relatively lower shear stresses and disturbed, oscillatory flow patterns is a common site for calcified nodules in the manifestation of

Open access

Aurélie Hautefort, Anna Pfenniger, and Brenda R Kwak

studies revealed that Cx37 and Cx40 are highly expressed in ECs of straight parts of arteries that are exposed to high laminar shear stress and that these Cxs are downregulated in ECs at arterial branch points or bifurcations subjected to a disturbed blood

Open access

Eleonora Zucchelli, Qasim A Majid, and Gabor Foldes

phenotype specification was promoted in hPSC-EC cultures exposed to shear stress, as demonstrated by the upregulation of arterial markers Ephrin B2 and Notch1 ( 37 ). However, whilst it is now possible to obtain large numbers of hPSC-EC, optimisation of the

Open access

Catarina G Fonseca, Pedro Barbacena, and Claudio A Franco

the ECM; mechanotaxis, if guided by mechanical forces (e.g. the effect of fluid shear stress in ECs); and electrotaxis, if guided by electric fields ( 22 , 23 ). The directional migratory stimulus triggers local activation of signaling pathways that

Open access

Cristina Caffarra Malvezzi, Aderville Cabassi, and Michele Miragoli

by piezoelectric translator of carbon fibers. Right: Shear stress, achieved by pressurized flow solution trough microbarrels. Mitochondria calcium handling regulation: mechanical-induced calcium propagation Scanning ion conductance

Open access

Ornella Colpani and Gaia Spinetti

of miR-126 were found in the athero-susceptible areas characterized by disturbed flow ( 29 ). Other atheroprotective miRNAs are miR-143/145, which are upregulated in EC under laminar shear stress and which target gene expression in VSMCs ( 30

Open access

T Scott Bowen and Stuart Egginton

, such as reacting to changes in haemodynamic forces following altered tissue perfusion (e.g. act as a mechanotransducer for elevated shear stress during skeletal muscle functional hyperaemia) or to local paracrine growth factor production (e.g. act as a

Open access

Ambra Cappelletto and Serena Zacchigna

form the tubular structure of the growing vessel. Finally, in adult organisms, physical forces (e.g. shear stress) can remodel and expand pre-existing small vessels to generate larger arteries, in a process known as arteriogenesis ( 2 ). The possible

Open access

David Mellis and Andrea Caporali

endothelial EVs released under shear stress are taken up by smooth muscle cells, where they downregulate target genes, inducing atheroprotective effects ( 43 ). On the other hand, pericyte-derived miR-132 is taken up by ECs, resulting in a higher proangiogenic