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Jaana Schneider, Marianne Pultar and Wolfgang Holnthoner

endothelial cells (OECs)), induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived ECs will be able to account for organotypic vascular beds ( 21 ). Another possibility is the direct reprogramming of differentiated human cells, such as fibroblast ( 22 , 23 ) or mature

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Eleonora Zucchelli, Qasim A Majid and Gabor Foldes

arise from the venous vasculature, and they are also formed by endothelial cells. The lymphatic system has the fundamental role of draining interstitial fluids from the tissues, and it is also involved in the immune surveillance of the body ( 1 , 2 ). A

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Piotr Kobialka and Mariona Graupera

existing ones ( 1 , 2 ). Upon exposure to proangiogenic stimuli, endothelial cells, which line up the inner part of the vascular tubes, undergo dynamic and complex morpho-biochemical changes that allow them to invade and expand in avascularised tissues

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Timothy D Le Cras and Elisa Boscolo

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is a critical regulator of the angiogenic process by controlling endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration and survival ( 1 ). Growth factor

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Carlo Dal Lin, Francesco Tona and Elena Osto

switch the endothelial phenotype from health to disease-causing endothelial dysfunction ( 5 ). Indeed, the dysfunction of endothelial cells (ECs) represents the earliest key step in the development of most cardiovascular diseases. However, the molecular

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Amer Harky, Ka Siu Fan and Ka Hay Fan

oxidative stress, damaging repair mechanisms present in certain cells lineages where telomerase restores the tandem repeat sequences. Preclinical studies have identified age-related endothelial cell (EC) and SMC dysfunction that contributes to the vascular

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Tatiane Gorski and Katrien De Bock

ingenious network of blood vessels formed by neatly aligned endothelial cells (ECs). During exercise, the uptake of oxygen and nutrients needs to increase dramatically ( 3 , 4 ), and for this reason, blood flow through the vessels surrounding the active

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Aurélie Hautefort, Anna Pfenniger and Brenda R Kwak

the plasma membrane and intercellular channels called gap junctions (GJs) connecting the cytoplasms of two neighboring cells ( Fig. 1 ). Cxs are expressed in virtually all tissues and cell types ( 1 , 2 ), including endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth

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Paolo Madeddu

reality the concept that endothelial cells are heterogeneous is by no means new. In the 1950s and 1960s, electron microscopic studies showed structural differences between capillaries in different organs. In the 1980s, immunohistochemical studies revealed

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T Scott Bowen and Stuart Egginton

intimately involved in the development of many diseases. This process is commonly viewed as proliferation and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) towards chemical signals (angiogenic growth factors) within the extracellular matrix, although variations on