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Manisha S Patil, Siân P Cartland, and Mary M Kavurma

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential part of the vasculature, not only providing structural support to the blood vessel wall, but also in its ability to interact with cells to regulate cell phenotype and function including proliferation, migration, differentiation and death – processes important in vascular remodelling. Increasing evidence implicates TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) signalling in the modulation of vascular cell function and remodelling under normal and pathological conditions such as in atherosclerosis. TRAIL can also stimulate synthesis of multiple ECM components within blood vessels. This review explores the relationship between TRAIL signals, the ECM, and its implications in vessel remodelling in cardiovascular disease.