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Maria Luigia Carbone and Cristina Maria Failla

Interleukins (ILs) are the group of cytokines firstly identified as expressed by leukocytes and playing different immunomodulatory functions. With increasing evidence of a constant crosstalk between leukocytes and endothelial cells in the regulation of immune cell differentiation and activation, a role of ILs also in endothelial cell stimulation and vascular inflammation has been shown. ILs act on endothelial cells both in an autocrine and a paracrine manner. In fact, a cross regulation is present among ILs expressed by different cell types, leading to amplification or blocking of the initial inflammatory signal with the secretion of additional ILs or involvement of other adjacent cells and tissues. Based on selective structural features, ILs can be divided into four major groups, a fifth group comprises ILs that do not fit into any of the other four. Most of the ILs playing a role in endothelial cell activation belong to the IL1-like cytokine group, but the number of ILs involved in vascular inflammation is constantly growing, and a special contribution of IL6, IL8, and IL17 has been underlined. This review aims at presenting current knowledge and at underling missing information about the role of IL in activating endothelial cells in selected pathological settings such as tumours, psoriasis, systemic sclerosis, and viral infection.