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Carlo Dal Lin, Francesco Tona and Elena Osto

The heart and the immune system are highly integrated systems cross-talking through cytokines, hormones and neurotransmitters. Their balance can be altered by numerous physical or psychological stressors leading to the onset of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and tissue damage. Here, we review the main players and mechanisms involved in the field. A new research paradigm, which considers also novel contributors, like endothelial cells, is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of immune-mediated cardiovascular disorders and beyond.