miRNAs are small regulatory RNAs which govern gene expression post-transcriptionally by primarily binding to the 3'-UTR of mRNA target genes. miR-145 is a well-studied miRNA that has been implicated in controlling a range of biological processes. miR-145 is expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types and acts as a tumor-suppressor by regulating target gene signaling pathways involved in different aspects of tumor growth and progression. There is also strong evidence that highlights the important functions of miR-145 in the cardiovascular system. Here, we review the mechanisms of miR-145 in tumorigenesis and cancer progression and compare and contrast with the roles of miR-145 in cardiovascular development and disease. We discuss the important targets of miR-145 in cancer and their possible link to the cardiovascular system.