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Open access

Ka Ka Ting, Paul Coleman, Yang Zhao, Mathew A Vadas, and Jennifer R Gamble

, hypertension and diabetes (see review by Hadi et al . ( 3 )) and more recently has been shown to play a role in the severe response to COVID-19 ( 4 ). Chronological aging is the dominant risk factor for CVD, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases ( 5 ) and

Open access

Laura Monteonofrio, Maria Cristina Florio, Majd AlGhatrif, Edward G Lakatta, and Maurizio C Capogrossi

increased interest in the risk factors involved in COVID-19 poor outcomes. The first retrospective multicenter cohort study of COVID-19 in Wuhan, identified older age as a significant risk factor for in-hospital mortality ( 2 ). A CDC report from July 2020

Open access

Alessandra Magenta, Reggio Lorde, Sunayana Begum Syed, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Annibale Puca, and Paolo Madeddu

Introduction The number and proportion of older people is growing in every country in the world. According to data from World Population Prospects (2019 Revision), by 2050, 16% of the people in the world will be over age 65, almost doubling

Open access

Ornella Colpani and Gaia Spinetti

) collectively named senescent-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). SASP-associated propagation of senescence to other cells and organs, the so-called ‘bystander effect’, amplifies the detrimental effect in aging and diseases of the low abundant population of

Open access

Amer Harky, Ka Siu Fan, and Ka Hay Fan

divisions. Telomere shortening in age-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases have been proven to reflect cellular turnover and shows potential within TAAD cases ( 44 ). The biological ageing effect of telomere attrition can also be caused by

Open access

Ruth Ganss

Tumour growth critically depends on a supportive microenvironment, including the tumour vasculature. Tumour blood vessels are structurally abnormal and functionally anergic which limits drug access and immune responses in solid cancers. Thus, tumour vasculature has been considered an attractive therapeutic target for decades. However, with time, anti-angiogenic therapy has evolved from destruction to structural and functional rehabilitation as understanding of tumour vascular biology became more refined. Vessel remodelling or normalisation strategies which alleviate hypoxia are now coming of age having been shown to have profound effects on the tumour microenvironment. This includes improved tumour perfusion, release from immune suppression and lower metastasis rates. Nevertheless, clinical translation has been slow due to challenges such as the transient nature of current normalisation strategies, limited in vivo monitoring and the heterogeneity of primary and/or metastatic tumour environments, calling for more tailored approaches to vascular remodelling. Despite these setbacks, harnessing vascular plasticity provides unique opportunities for anti-cancer combination therapies in particular anti-angiogenic immunotherapy which are yet to reach their full potential.

Open access

T Scott Bowen and Stuart Egginton

a major contribution to the aetiology and maintenance of multiple disorders, including those associated with serious risk of mortality and/or level of morbidity, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, age-related blindness

Open access

Paolo Madeddu

-risk categories (children and women) having high ACE2 levels and high-risk categories (elderly people and men) having low ACE2 levels. People over the age of 60 years are at a significantly greater risk of COVID-19. This includes an increased risk of severe

Open access

Ebba Brakenhielm and Vincent Richard

upregulation of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, as reported in diabetic pigs ( 17 ). Metabolic alterations of endothelial cells in response to diabetes or aging may also per se contribute to poor angiogenic responses as metabolic dysregulation increases

Open access

Ambra Cappelletto and Serena Zacchigna

research on aged animals is extremely costly and is impossible to perform in most laboratories, requiring animal housing for prolonged periods of time. The execution of pre-clinical trials in aged companion animals, which share most age-related diseases