Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is frequently characterized by a marked inflammatory response with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure associated with multiorgan involvement. Some risk factors predispose patients to develop a more severe infection and to an increased mortality; among them, advanced age and male gender have been identified as major and independent risk factors for COVID-19 poor outcome. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is strictly involved in COVID-19 because angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the host receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and also converts pro-inflammatory angiotensin (Ang) II into anti-inflammatory Ang(1–7). In this review, we have addressed the effect of aging and gender on RAAS with emphasis on ACE2, pro-inflammatory Ang II/Ang II receptor 1 axis and anti-inflammatory Ang(1–7)/Mas receptor axis.
Laura Monteonofrio, Maria Cristina Florio, Majd AlGhatrif, Edward G Lakatta, and Maurizio C Capogrossi
Ka Ka Ting, Paul Coleman, Yang Zhao, Mathew A Vadas, and Jennifer R Gamble
Cellular senescence is now recognised as one of the hallmarks of ageing. Herein, we examine current findings on senescence of the vascular endothelium and its impacts on age-related vascular diseases. Endothelial senescence can result in systemic metabolic changes, implicating senescence in chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis. Senolytics, drugs that eliminate senescent cells, afford new therapeutic strategies for control of these chronic diseases.
Sashini Iddawela, Andrew Ravendren, and Amer Harky
The pathophysiology of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections are poorly understood, despite high mortality associated with the diseases. An evidence review was conducted to examine the biomechanical, chemical and genetic factors involved in thoracic aortic pathology. The composition of connective tissue and smooth muscle cell action can mediate important mechanical properties that allow the thoracic aorta to withstand and transmit pressures. Genetic syndromes can affect connective tissue and signalling proteins that interrupt smooth muscle function, leading to tissue failure. There are complex interplaying factors that maintain thoracic aortic function in health and disrupt in disease, signifying an area for extensive research.
Roberta Giordo, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Arduino Aleksander Mangoni, and Gianfranco Pintus
SARS-CoV-2 is the agent responsible for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The clinical evolution of COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic infection to death. Older people and patients with underlying medical conditions, particularly diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic respiratory diseases are more susceptible to develop severe forms of COVID-19. Significant endothelial damage has been reported in COVID-19 and growing evidence supports the key pathophysiological role of this alteration in the onset and the progression of the disease. In particular, the impaired vascular homeostasis secondary to the structural and functional damage of the endothelium and its main component, the endothelial cells, contributes to the systemic pro-inflammatory state and the multiorgan involvement observed in COVID-19 patients. This review summarizes the current evidence supporting the proposition that the endothelium is a key target of SARS-CoV-2, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and endothelial cells.
Dwitiya Sawant and Brenda Lilly
miRNAs are small regulatory RNAs which govern gene expression post-transcriptionally by primarily binding to the 3'-UTR of mRNA target genes. miR-145 is a well-studied miRNA that has been implicated in controlling a range of biological processes. miR-145 is expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types and acts as a tumor-suppressor by regulating target gene signaling pathways involved in different aspects of tumor growth and progression. There is also strong evidence that highlights the important functions of miR-145 in the cardiovascular system. Here, we review the mechanisms of miR-145 in tumorigenesis and cancer progression and compare and contrast with the roles of miR-145 in cardiovascular development and disease. We discuss the important targets of miR-145 in cancer and their possible link to the cardiovascular system.
Abdallah Al-Mohammad, David G Partridge, Graham Fent, Oliver Watson, Nigel T Lewis, Robert F Storey, Michael Makris, and Timothy J Chico
Since the first description of COVID-19 in December 2019, more than 63,000 publications have described its virology, clinical course, management, treatment and prevention. Most physicians are now encountering, or will soon encounter, patients with COVID-19 and must attempt to simultaneously assimilate this avalanche of information while managing an entirely novel disease with few guiding precedents. It is increasingly clear that, although primarily a respiratory illness, COVID-19 is associated with cardiovascular complications. However, the true incidence of direct cardiac complications remains unclear, as all complications thus far reported can also occur in patients without COVID-19. In this review, we briefly summarise and critically appraise the data on cardiac complications associated with COVID-19 and describe some cases from our own experience. We identify unresolved questions and highlight the many uncertainties in this developing field.
Kor H Hutting, Wouter B aan de Stegge, Rombout R Kruse, Jeff G van Baal, Sicco A Bus, and Jaap J van Netten
Monitoring of diabetic foot infections is largely based on clinical assessment, which is limited by moderate reliability. We conducted a prospective study to explore monitoring of thermal asymmetry (difference between mean plantar temperature of the affected and unaffected foot) for the assessment of severity of diabetic foot infections. In patients with moderate or severe diabetic foot infections (International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot infection-grades 3 or 4) we measured thermal asymmetry with an advanced infrared thermography setup during the first 4–5 days of in-hospital treatment, in addition to clinical assessments and tests of serum inflammatory markers (white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels). We assessed the change in thermal asymmetry from baseline to final assessment, and investigated its association with infection-grades and serum inflammatory markers. In seven included patients, thermal asymmetry decreased from median 1.8°C (range: −0.6 to 8.4) at baseline to 1.5°C (range: −0.1 to 5.1) at final assessment (P = 0.515). In three patients who improved to infection-grade 2, thermal asymmetry at baseline (median 1.6°C (range: −0.6 to 1.6)) and final assessment (1.5°C (range: 0.4 to 5.1)) remained similar (P = 0.302). In four patients who did not improve to infection-grade 2, thermal asymmetry decreased from median 4.3°C (range: 1.8 to 8.4) to 1.9°C (range: −0.1 to 4.4; P = 0.221). No correlations were found between thermal asymmetry and infection-grades (r = −0.347; P = 0.445), CRP-levels (r = 0.321; P = 0.482) or WBC (r = −0.250; P = 0.589) during the first 4–5 days of hospitalization. Based on these explorative findings we suggest that infrared thermography is of no value for monitoring diabetic foot infections during in-hospital treatment.
Karthik Amudhala Hemanthakumar and Riikka Kivelä
Endothelial cells (ECs) line the inner surface of all blood and lymphatic vessels throughout the body, making endothelium one of the largest tissues. In addition to its transport function, endothelium is now appreciated as a dynamic organ actively participating in angiogenesis, permeability and vascular tone regulation, as well as in the development and regeneration of tissues. The identification of endothelial-derived secreted factors, angiocrines, has revealed non-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial cells in both physiological and pathological tissue remodeling. In the heart, ECs play a variety of important roles during cardiac development as well as in growth, homeostasis and regeneration of the adult heart. To date, several angiocrines affecting cardiomyocyte growth in response to physiological or pathological stimuli have been identified. In this review, we discuss the effects of angiogenesis and EC-mediated signaling in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. Identification of the molecular and metabolic signals from ECs during physiological and pathological cardiac growth could provide novel therapeutic targets to treat heart failure, as endothelium is emerging as one of the potential target organs in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.
Catarina G Fonseca, Pedro Barbacena, and Claudio A Franco
The vascular system is a hierarchically organized network of blood vessels that play crucial roles in embryogenesis, homeostasis and disease. Blood vessels are built by endothelial cells – the cells lining the interior of blood vessels – through a process named vascular morphogenesis. Endothelial cells react to different biomechanical signals in their environment by adjusting their behavior to: (1) invade, proliferate and fuse to form new vessels (angiogenesis); (2) remodel, regress and establish a hierarchy in the network (patterning); and (3) maintain network stability (quiescence). Each step involves the coordination of endothelial cell differentiation, proliferation, polarity, migration, rearrangements and shape changes to ensure network integrity and an efficient barrier between blood and tissues. In this review, we highlighted the relevance and the mechanisms involving endothelial cell migration during different steps of vascular morphogenesis. We further present evidence on how impaired endothelial cell dynamics can contribute to pathology.
Cristina Caffarra Malvezzi, Aderville Cabassi, and Michele Miragoli
The role of mitochondria in cardiac tissue is of utmost importance due to the dynamic nature of the heart and its energetic demands, necessary to assure its proper beating function. Recently, other important mitochondrial roles have been discovered, namely its contribution to intracellular calcium handling in normal and pathological myocardium. Novel investigations support the fact that during the progression toward heart failure, mitochondrial calcium machinery is compromised due to its morphological, structural and biochemical modifications resulting in facilitated arrhythmogenesis and heart failure development. The interaction between mitochondria and sarcomere directly affect cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction and is also involved in mechano-transduction through the cytoskeletal proteins that tether together the mitochondria and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The focus of this review is to briefly elucidate the role of mitochondria as (mechano) sensors in the heart.