The vascular system is a hierarchically organized network of blood vessels that play crucial roles in embryogenesis, homeostasis and disease. Blood vessels are built by endothelial cells – the cells lining the interior of blood vessels – through a process named vascular morphogenesis. Endothelial cells react to different biomechanical signals in their environment by adjusting their behavior to: (1) invade, proliferate and fuse to form new vessels (angiogenesis); (2) remodel, regress and establish a hierarchy in the network (patterning); and (3) maintain network stability (quiescence). Each step involves the coordination of endothelial cell differentiation, proliferation, polarity, migration, rearrangements and shape changes to ensure network integrity and an efficient barrier between blood and tissues. In this review, we highlighted the relevance and the mechanisms involving endothelial cell migration during different steps of vascular morphogenesis. We further present evidence on how impaired endothelial cell dynamics can contribute to pathology.
Catarina G Fonseca, Pedro Barbacena, and Claudio A Franco
Cristina Caffarra Malvezzi, Aderville Cabassi, and Michele Miragoli
The role of mitochondria in cardiac tissue is of utmost importance due to the dynamic nature of the heart and its energetic demands, necessary to assure its proper beating function. Recently, other important mitochondrial roles have been discovered, namely its contribution to intracellular calcium handling in normal and pathological myocardium. Novel investigations support the fact that during the progression toward heart failure, mitochondrial calcium machinery is compromised due to its morphological, structural and biochemical modifications resulting in facilitated arrhythmogenesis and heart failure development. The interaction between mitochondria and sarcomere directly affect cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction and is also involved in mechano-transduction through the cytoskeletal proteins that tether together the mitochondria and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The focus of this review is to briefly elucidate the role of mitochondria as (mechano) sensors in the heart.
Manisha S Patil, Siân P Cartland, and Mary M Kavurma
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential part of the vasculature, not only providing structural support to the blood vessel wall, but also in its ability to interact with cells to regulate cell phenotype and function including proliferation, migration, differentiation and death – processes important in vascular remodelling. Increasing evidence implicates TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) signalling in the modulation of vascular cell function and remodelling under normal and pathological conditions such as in atherosclerosis. TRAIL can also stimulate synthesis of multiple ECM components within blood vessels. This review explores the relationship between TRAIL signals, the ECM, and its implications in vessel remodelling in cardiovascular disease.
Sarah Costantino, Shafeeq A Mohammed, Samuele Ambrosini, and Francesco Paneni
Our genetic background provides limited information on individual risk of developing vascular complications overtime. New biological layers, namely epigenetic modifications, are now emerging as potent regulators of gene expression thus leading to altered transcriptional programs and vascular disease phenotypes. Such epigenetic modifications, defined as changes to the genome that do not involve changes in DNA sequence, are generally induced by environmental factors and poor lifestyle habits. Of note, adverse epigenetic signals acquired during life can be transmitted to the offspring thus leading to premature alterations of the epigenetic and transcriptional landscape eventually leading to early endothelial dysfunction and vascular senescence. Modifications of the epigenome play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cardiometabolic disturbances such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In these patients, changes of DNA methylation and chromatin structure contribute to alter pathways regulating insulin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis and vascular function. In this perspective, unveiling the ‘epigenetic landscape’ in cardiometabolic patients may help to identify new players implicated in obesity and diabetes-related vascular dysfunction and may pave the way for personalized therapies in this setting. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge of the epigenetic routes implicated in vascular damage and cardiovascular disease in patients with metabolic alterations.
Endothelial barrier dysfunction is the hallmark of inflammatory lung disease, including Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. The purpose of the present editorial is to emphasize on recent advances in the corresponding field, as it relates to P53. This tumor suppressor protein has been shown to enhance the vascular barrier integrity via distinct molecular pathways. Further, it mediates the beneficial effects of heat shock protein 90 inhibitors and growth hormone releasing hormone antagonists in the lung microvasculature.
Luca Marchetti and Britta Engelhardt
To maintain the homeostatic environment required for proper function of CNS neurons the endothelial cells of CNS microvessels tightly regulate the movement of ions and molecules between the blood and the CNS. The unique properties of these blood vascular endothelial cells are termed blood-brain barrier (BBB) and extend to regulating immune cell trafficking into the immune privileged CNS during health and disease. In general, extravasation of circulating immune cells is a multi-step process regulated by the sequential interaction of adhesion and signalling molecules between the endothelial cells and the immune cells. Accounting for the unique barrier properties of CNS microvessels, immune cell migration across the BBB is distinct and characterized by several adaptations. Here we describe the mechanisms that regulate immune cell trafficking across the BBB during immune surveillance and neuroinflammation, with a focus on the current state-of-the-art in vitro and in vivo imaging observations.
Chia-Pei Denise Hsu, Joshua D Hutcheson, and Sharan Ramaswamy
Forces generated by blood flow are known to contribute to cardiovascular development and remodeling. These hemodynamic forces induce molecular signals that are communicated from the endothelium to various cell types. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and the vasculature, and together they deliver nutrients throughout the body. While heart valves and blood vessels experience different environmental forces and differ in morphology as well as cell types, they both can undergo pathological remodeling and become susceptible to calcification. In addition, while the plaque morphology is similar in valvular and vascular diseases, therapeutic targets available for the latter condition are not effective in the management of heart valve calcification. Therefore, research in valvular and vascular pathologies and treatments have largely remained independent. Nonetheless, understanding the similarities and differences in development, calcific/fibrous pathologies and healthy remodeling events between the valvular and vascular systems can help us better identify future treatments for both types of tissues, particularly for heart valve pathologies which have been understudied in comparison to arterial diseases.
Alessandra Magenta, Reggio Lorde, Sunayana Begum Syed, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Annibale Puca, and Paolo Madeddu
Regenerative medicine is a new therapeutic modality that aims to mend tissue damage by encouraging the reconstitution of physiological integrity. It represents an advancement over conventional therapies that allow reducing the damage but result in disease chronicization. Age-related decline in spontaneous capacity of repair, especially in organs like the heart that have very limited proliferative capacity, contributes in reducing the benefit of conventional therapy. ncRNAs are emerging as key epigenetic regulators of cardiovascular regeneration. Inhibition or replacement of miRNAs may offer reparative solutions to cardiovascular disease. The first part of this review article is devoted to illustrating novel therapies emerging from research on miRNAs. In the second part, we develop new therapeutic concepts emerging from genetics of longevity. Prolonged survival, as in supercentenarians, denotes an exceptional capacity to repair and cope with risk factors and diseases. These characteristics are shared with offspring, suggesting that the regenerative phenotype is heritable. New evidence indicates that genetic traits responsible for prolongation of health span in humans can be passed to and benefit the outcomes of animal models of cardiovascular disease. Genetic studies have also focused on determinants of accelerated senescence and related druggable targets. Evolutionary genetics assessing the genetic basis of adaptation and comparing successful and unsuccessful genetic changes in response to selection within populations represent a powerful basis to develop novel therapies aiming to prolong cardiovascular and whole organism health.