Interleukins (ILs) are the group of cytokines firstly identified as expressed by leukocytes and playing different immunomodulatory functions. With increasing evidence of a constant crosstalk between leukocytes and endothelial cells in the regulation of immune cell differentiation and activation, a role of ILs also in endothelial cell stimulation and vascular inflammation has been shown. ILs act on endothelial cells both in an autocrine and a paracrine manner. In fact, a cross regulation is present among ILs expressed by different cell types, leading to amplification or blocking of the initial inflammatory signal with the secretion of additional ILs or involvement of other adjacent cells and tissues. Based on selective structural features, ILs can be divided into four major groups, a fifth group comprises ILs that do not fit into any of the other four. Most of the ILs playing a role in endothelial cell activation belong to the IL1-like cytokine group, but the number of ILs involved in vascular inflammation is constantly growing, and a special contribution of IL6, IL8, and IL17 has been underlined. This review aims at presenting current knowledge and at underling missing information about the role of IL in activating endothelial cells in selected pathological settings such as tumours, psoriasis, systemic sclerosis, and viral infection.
Maria Luigia Carbone and Cristina Maria Failla
Marie Mclaughlin, Geraint Florida-James, and Mark Ross
Breast cancer chemotherapy, although very potent against tumour tissue, results in significant cardiovascular toxicity. The focus of research in this area has been predominantly towards cardiotoxicity. There is limited evidence detailing the impact of such treatment on the vasculature despite its central importance within the cardiovascular system and resultant detrimental effects of damage and dysfunction. This review highlights the impact of chemotherapy for breast cancer on the vascular endothelium. We consider the most likely mechanisms of endothelial toxicity to be through direct damage and dysfunction of the endothelium. There are sharp consequences of these detrimental effects as they can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, there is potential for exercise to alleviate some of the vascular toxicity of chemotherapy, and the evidence for this is provided. The potential role of exercise in protecting against vascular toxicity is explained, highlighting the recent in-human and animal model exercise interventions. Lastly, the mediating mechanisms of exercise protection of endothelial health is discussed, focusing on the importance of exercise for endothelial health, function, repair, inflammation and hyperlipidaemia, angiogenesis, and vascular remodelling. These are all important counteracting measures against chemotherapy-induced toxicity and are discussed in detail.
Wessel S Rodenburg and Jaap D van Buul
Rho GTPases are small signalling G-proteins that are central regulators of cytoskeleton dynamics, and thereby regulate many cellular processes, including the shape, adhesion and migration of cells. As such, Rho GTPases are also essential for the invasive behaviour of cancer cells, and thus involved in several steps of the metastatic cascade, including the extravasation of cancer cells. Extravasation, the process by which cancer cells leave the circulation by transmigrating through the endothelium that lines capillary walls, is an essential step for metastasis towards distant organs. During extravasation, Rho GTPase signalling networks not only regulate the transmigration of cancer cells but also regulate the interactions between cancer and endothelial cells and are involved in the disruption of the endothelial barrier function, ultimately allowing cancer cells to extravasate into the underlying tissue and potentially form metastases. Thus, targeting Rho GTPase signalling networks in cancer may be an effective approach to inhibit extravasation and metastasis. In this review, the complex process of cancer cell extravasation will be discussed in detail. Additionally, the roles and regulation of Rho GTPase signalling networks during cancer cell extravasation will be discussed, both from a cancer cell and endothelial cell point of view.
Elisabeth Kugler, Ryan Snodgrass, George Bowley, Karen Plant, Jovana Serbanovic-Canic, Noémie Hamilton, Paul C Evans, Timothy Chico, and Paul Armitage
The role of blood flow in vascular development is complex and context-dependent. In this study, we quantify the effect of the lack of blood flow on embryonic vascular development on two vascular beds, namely the cerebral and trunk vasculature in zebrafish. We perform this by analysing vascular topology, endothelial cell (EC) number, EC distribution, apoptosis, and inflammatory response in animals with normal blood flow or absent blood flow. We find that absent blood flow reduced vascular area and EC number significantly in both examined vascular beds, but the effect is more severe in the cerebral vasculature, and severity increases over time. Absent blood flow leads to an increase in non-EC-specific apoptosis without increasing tissue inflammation, as quantified by cerebral immune cell numbers and nitric oxide. Similarly, while stereotypic vascular patterning in the trunk is maintained, intra-cerebral vessels show altered patterning, which is likely to be due to vessels failing to initiate effective fusion and anastomosis rather than sprouting or path-seeking. In conclusion, blood flow is essential for cellular survival in both the trunk and cerebral vasculature, but particularly intra-cerebral vessels are affected by the lack of blood flow, suggesting that responses to blood flow differ between these two vascular beds.
Sara Sileno, Sara Beji, Marco D’Agostino, Alessandra Carassiti, Guido Melillo, and Alessandra Magenta
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the skin. Both genetic and environmental factors play a pathogenic role in psoriasis and contribute to the severity of the disease. Psoriasis, in fact, has been associated with different comorbidities such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, gastrointestinal or kidney diseases, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD). Indeed, life expectancy in severe psoriasis is reduced by up to 5 years due to CVD and CeVD. Moreover, patients with severe psoriasis have a higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, including dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and hypertension. Further, systemic inflammation is associated with oxidative stress increase and induces endothelial damage and atherosclerosis progression. Different miRNA have been already described in psoriasis, both in the skin tissues and in the blood flow, to play a role in the progression of disease. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the most important miRNAs that play a role in psoriasis and are also linked to CVD.
Gloria Garoffolo and Maurizio Pesce
The role of mechanical forces is emerging as a new player in the pathophysiologic programming of the cardiovascular system. The ability of the cells to ‘sense’ mechanical forces does not relate only to perception of movement or flow, as intended traditionally, but also to the biophysical properties of the extracellular matrix, the geometry of the tissues, and the force distribution inside them. This is also supported by the finding that cells can actively translate mechanical cues into discrete gene expression and epigenetic programming. In the present review, we will contextualize these new concepts in the vascular pathologic programming.
Ka Ka Ting, Paul Coleman, Yang Zhao, Mathew A Vadas, and Jennifer R Gamble
Cellular senescence is now recognized as one of the hallmarks of aging. Herein, we examine current findings on senescence of the vascular endothelium and its impacts on age-related vascular diseases. Endothelial senescence can result in systemic metabolic changes, implicating senescence in chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis. Senolytics, drugs that eliminate senescent cells, afford new therapeutic strategies for control of these chronic diseases.
Sashini Iddawela, Andrew Ravendren, and Amer Harky
The pathophysiology of thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection is poorly understood, despite high mortality. An evidence review was conducted to examine the biomechanical, chemical and genetic factors involved in thoracic aortic pathology. The composition of connective tissue and smooth muscle cells can mediate important mechanical properties that allow the thoracic aorta to withstand and transmit pressures. Genetic syndromes can affect connective tissue and signalling proteins that interrupt smooth muscle function, leading to tissue failure. There are complex interplaying factors that maintain thoracic aortic function in health and are disrupted in disease, signifying an area for extensive research.
Roberta Giordo, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Arduino Aleksander Mangoni, and Gianfranco Pintus
SARS-CoV-2 is the agent responsible for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The clinical evolution of COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic infection to death. Older people and patients with underlying medical conditions, particularly diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic respiratory diseases are more susceptible to develop severe forms of COVID-19. Significant endothelial damage has been reported in COVID-19 and growing evidence supports the key pathophysiological role of this alteration in the onset and the progression of the disease. In particular, the impaired vascular homeostasis secondary to the structural and functional damage of the endothelium and its main component, the endothelial cells, contributes to the systemic proinflammatory state and the multiorgan involvement observed in COVID-19 patients. This review summarizes the current evidence supporting the proposition that the endothelium is a key target of SARS-CoV-2, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and endothelial cells.
Laura Monteonofrio, Maria Cristina Florio, Majd AlGhatrif, Edward G Lakatta, and Maurizio C Capogrossi
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is frequently characterized by a marked inflammatory response with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure associated with multiorgan involvement. Some risk factors predispose patients to develop a more severe infection and to an increased mortality; among them, advanced age and male gender have been identified as major and independent risk factors for COVID-19 poor outcome. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is strictly involved in COVID-19 because angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the host receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and also converts pro-inflammatory angiotensin (Ang) II into anti-inflammatory Ang(1–7). In this review, we have addressed the effect of aging and gender on RAAS with emphasis on ACE2, pro-inflammatory Ang II/Ang II receptor 1 axis and anti-inflammatory Ang(1–7)/Mas receptor axis.